Entries by Laila Issayeva

Digital Badges

Digital badges (aka ebadges) have emerged in today’s digitalized world as a powerful tool for recognizing and showcasing individual’s accomplishments in an online format which is more comprehensive, immediate, brandable, and easily verifiable compared to traditional paper certificates or diplomas. In this blog post, we will delve into the world of digital badges, explore best […]

The Graded Response Model – Samejima (1969)

Samejima’s (1969) Graded Response Model (GRM, sometimes SGRM) is an extension of the two parameter logistic model (2PL) within the item response theory (IRT) paradigm.  IRT provides a number of benefits over classical test theory, especially regarding the treatment of polytomous items; learn more about IRT vs. CTT here.   What is the Graded Response […]

What ChatGPT brings us for item writing

Even those ones who do not consider themselves technology buffs have heard about ChatGPT. Today, everybody is talking about ChatGPT—a modern megastar of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) industries. This is how ChatGPT introduces itself: “I am an AI language model called ChatGPT. My purpose is to assist and communicate with users through […]


AI in Education

Artificial intelligence (AI) is poised to address some challenges that education deals with today, through innovation of teaching and learning processes. By applying AI in education technologies, educators can determine student needs more precisely, keep students more engaged, improve learning, and adapt teaching accordingly to boost learning outcomes. A process of utilizing AI in education […]

Gamification in Learning & Assessment

Gamification in assessment and psychometrics presents new opportunities for ways to improve the quality of exams. While the majority of adults perceive games with caution because of their detrimental effect on youngsters’ minds causing addiction, they can be extremely beneficial for learning and assessment if employed thoughtfully. Gamification does not only provide learners with multiple […]

Meta-analysis and Test Validation

Meta-analysis is a research process of collating data from multiple independent but similar scientific studies in order to identify common trends and findings by means of statistical methods. To put it simply, it is a method where you can accumulate all of your research findings and analyze them statistically. It is often used in psychometrics […]

Test validation

Test validation is the process of verifying whether the specific requirements to test development stages are fulfilled or not, based on solid evidence. In particular, test validation is an ongoing process of developing an argument that a specific test, its score interpretation or use is valid. The interpretation and use of testing data should be […]

Maximum Likelihood Estimation

Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) is an approach to estimating parameters for a model.  It is one of the core aspects of Item Response Theory (IRT), especially to estimate item parameters (analyze questions) and estimate person parameters (scoring).  This article will provide an introduction to the concepts of MLE. Content History behind Maximum Likelihood Estimation Defining […]

Multidimensional Item Response Theory

Multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) has been developing from its Factor Analytic and unidimensional item response theory (IRT) roots. This development has led to an increased emphasis on precise modeling of item-examinee interaction and a decreased emphasis on data reduction and simplification. MIRT represents a broad family of probabilistic models designed to portray an examinee’s […]

The IRT Item Pseudo-guessing Parameter

The item pseudo-guessing parameter is one of the three item parameters estimated under item response theory (IRT): discrimination a, difficulty b, and pseudo-guessing c. The parameter that is utilized only in the 3PL model is the pseudo-guessing parameter c.  It represents a lower asymptote for the probability of an examinee responding correctly to an item. […]