Harpp Hogan

Harpp and Hogan (1993) Response Similarity Index

Harpp and Hogan (1993) suggested a response similarity index defined as                                                                                 where …
bellezza error similarity

Bellezza & Bellezza (1989): Error Similarity Analysis

This index evaluates error similarity analysis (ESA), namely estimating the probability that a given pair of examinees would have the same exact errors in common (EEIC), given the total number of errors they have in common (EIC) and the aggregated…
frary g2

Frary, Tideman, and Watts (1977): g2 collusion index

The Frary, Tideman, and Watts (1977) g2 index is a collusion (cheating) detection index, which is a standardization that evaluates number of common responses between two examinees in the typical standardized format: observed common responses…
Wollack Omega

Wollack Omega - Wollack (1997) ω

Wollack (1997) adapted the standardized collusion index of Frary, Tidemann, and Watts (1977) g2 to item response theory (IRT) and produced the Wollack Omega (ω) index.  It is clear that the graphics in the original article by Frary et al.…
wesolosky

Wesolowsky (2000) Zjk collusion detection index

Wesolowsky’s (2000) index is a collusion detection index, designed to look for exam cheating by finding similar response vectors amongst examinees. It is in the same family as g2 and Wollack's ω.  Like those, it creates a standardized…

Response Time Effort

Wise and Kong (2005) defined an index to flag examinees not putting forth minimal effort, based on their response time.  It is called the response time effort (RTE) index. Let K be the number of items in the test. The RTE for each examinee…
Holland K

Holland K Index and K Variants for Psychometric Forensics

The Holland K index and variants are probability-based indices for psychometric forensics like the Bellezza & Bellezza indices, but make use of conditional information in their calculations.  All three estimate the probability of observing…

What's the difference between Assess.ai and FastTest?

FastTest has been ASC's flagship platform for the past decade, securely delivering millions of exams, loaded with best practices like computerized adaptive testing and item response theory. FastTest is based off decades of experience in computerized…
item review SME

What is online proctoring?

Online proctoring has been around for over a decade by now. But given the recent outbreak of COVID-19, educational and workforce/certification institutions are scrambling to change their operations, and a huge part of this is an incredible…
item distractor students

What is an item distractor?

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An item distractor, also known as a foil or a trap, is an incorrect option for a selected-response item on an assessment. What makes a good item distractor? One word: plausibility.  We need the item distractor to attract examinees. …
item review SME

What are the best practices for test item review?

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What is item review?  It is the process of performing quality control on items before they are ever delivered to examinees.  This is an absolutely essential step in the development of items for medium and high stakes exams; while…

What are technology enhanced items?

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Technology enhanced items are assessment items (questions) that utilize technology to improve the interaction of the item, over and above what is possible with paper.  Technology enhanced items can improve examinee engagement (important…